preston dating uk - Using relative dating principles

Slow processes creating rocks can be inferred by observing reefs growing in the oceans, or sediments being carried by flowing water in streams or moved by waves crashing on beaches.

We can see sediments being deposited, but we cannot see them turning into stone because the process may take thousand or even millions of years.

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For instance, rocks and minerals formed deep underground may not be stable in the surface environment where they are exposed to water, air, temperature changes, and other physical and chemical conditions.

All matter is made up of atoms, and atoms are made up of atomic particles (electrons, protons, and neutrons - see Figure 2-5).

The thick, dark, gray layer at the bottom is made of basalt. You have just used the principle of superposition to interpret the relative ages of the layers.

This principle states that in a sequence of undisturbed sedimentary layers or lava flows, the oldest layers are at the bottom.

Using relative dating principles and the position of layers within rock, it is possible to reconstruct the sequence of geologic events that have occurred at a site.

In the image below, cliffs along the Snake River show signs of volcanic activity and deposition.

The Periodic Table is a list of 108 known elements arrange by atomic number (see Figure 2-6).

Of these, 92 are naturally occurring (prior to development of artificial nuclear research and development).

Rocks are composed of chemical compounds naturally occurring in nature.

Rocks are composed of particles ranging from microscopic grains to full sized crystals and crystal grains of different kinds of minerals, and containing many different identifiable physical characteristics.

This chapter is an introduction to rocks and minerals, and the rock cycle.

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